I prefer using some simple best practices for working with callbacks to keep my code clean and organized. These techniques don't require adding any extra modules to your code base, won't slow your program down, don't introduce error-hiding anti-patterns, and don't convey a false impression of synchronous execution. Best of all, they result in code that is actually more readable and concise, and once you see how simple they are, you might want to use them, too.
Here they are:
- use named functions for callbacks
- nest functions when you need to capture (enclose) variable scope
- use return when invoking the callback
The Pyramid of DoomHere's a contrived example that uses typical node.js callbacks with (err, result) arguments. It's a mess of nested functions: the so-called Pyramid of Doom. It keeps indenting, layer upon smothering layer, until it unwinds in a great cascading spasm of parenthesis, braces and semi-colons.
Here's the above example re-written using named callback functions. Instead of a Russian doll of anonymous functions, every function that takes a callback is passed the name of the callback function to use. The callback function is defined immediately afterwards, greatly improving readability.
Nest Only for ScopeWe can do even better. Notice that two functions, sendGreeting and showResult, are still nested inside of the getGreeting function. Nested "inner" functions create a closure that encloses the callback function's own local variable scope, plus the variable scope of the function its nested inside of. These nested callbacks can access variables from higher up the call stack. In our example, both sendGreeting and showResult use variables that were created earlier in the getGreeting function. They can access these variable from getGreeting, because they're nested inside getGreeting and thus, enclose its variable scope.
A lot of times this is totally unnecessary. You only need to nest functions if you need to refer to variables in the scope of the caller from within the callback function. Otherwise, simply put named functions on the same level as the caller. In our example, variables can be shared by moving them to the top-level scope of the greet function. Then, we can put all our named functions on the same level. No more nesting and indentation!
Compare this example with the Pyramid of Doom at the beginning of the post. I think you'll agree that these simple rules result in cleaner, more readable code and provide a great escape from the Callback Hell we started out with.
Good luck and have fun!